Background: Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson. Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). Items 9 – 14 breviated version of the AES, known as the Apathy Scale. Copyright © SciRes. .. [6] Starkstein, S.E. and Leentjens, A.F.G. () The noso-.

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Stroke ; 24 Am J Psychiatry ; 5: Starkstein apathy scale on this item are 0: There is also a structured clinical interview for apathy, but its validity and reliability has been established for patients with dementia only. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 75 9: Apathy is most frequently associated with depression and severe scle.

Starkstein Starkstein standardized Marin’s construct into a set of criteria based on the presence of diminished goal-directed behaviour, diminished goal-directed cognition, and diminished concomitants of goal-directed behaviour Table I.

SAS – Starkstein Apathy Scale

The Apathy Inventory also includes separate assessments for the symptoms of emotional blunting, lack of initiative, and loss of interest. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 16 4: Selegiline in the management of apathy following traumatic brain injury. Testosterone deficiency and apathy in Parkinson’s disease: Furthermore, changes on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory were rather small and may not have been clinically relevant.

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 4 2: In a recent review, Habib summarized the main clinical features of apathy which he termed “athymormia” after brain damage, and stressed the over-representation of basal ganglia lesions among these patients. J Neural Transm May; Group differences in the relationship between apathy and depression.


In a recent study we assessed the longitudinal evolution of apathy in a consecutive series of patients with probable AD attending a memory clinic Starkstein starkxtein al.

Several instruments are now available to rate the severity of apathy. However, the magnitude and temporal course of their therapeutic sstarkstein is still controversial Whyte et al. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry in press.

Possible starkstein apathy scale for dopaminergic agents following traumatic brain injury: Several studies from our group demonstrated that apathy is a common feature of depression among individuals with or without AD, although apathy and depression may also occur independently of each other Starkstein et al.

This would explain why some patients with orbito-frontal lesions who mostly show disinhibited behaviours, also feature a concomitant loss of motivation.

Introduction Diminished motivation is one of the most frequent behavioural changes among patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol ; 15 3: Habib speculated that this cingulate circuit may mediate “the process of converting motivation into action”, and that apathy may result from the bilateral disruption at different levels of this circuit or from lesions in limbic areas outside the striato-pallidal complex.

The prevalence, clinical correlates and treatment of apathy in Alzheimer’s disease

Attention and memory dysfunction after traumatic brain injury: Author links open overlay panel Kenn Freddy Pedersen M. One of these circuits originates in the anterior cingulate cortex, connects with the ventral globus pallidus and the dorsomedial thalamus, and projects back to the anterior cingulate.


Marin and coworkers were the first to validate the Apathy Evaluation Scale for use with patients with stroke, Parkinson’s disease, or Alzheimer’s disease Marin et al.

Our group and others have also reported a relatively high frequency of apathy among patients with stroke lesions, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease Burns et al.

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Behavioural and psychological syndromes in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology ; 48 suppl 6: The problem with this hypothesis is how to avoid the Cartesian dilemma of psychological states motivation and past or present emotional experiences producing a physical state action.

However, Habib’s model partially rests on the dubious assumption that action is causally dependent on motivation. There is a variety of scales that are both valid and reliable to rate the severity of apathy, but these instruments are also used to diagnose apathy based on cut-off scores. Apathy was assessed with the Apathy Scale and diagnosed using the diagnostic criteria shown in Table I.

Treating apathy in Apathj disease. Arch Neurol ; There are no specific randomized controlled trials of psychoactive compounds to treat apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders. Please review our privacy starkstein apathy scale.

About two thirds of the AD patients with apathy were also depressed either major or minor depression.