Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins University Press, – Political Science – pages. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins Press, – International relations – pages. Title, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Author, Arnold Wolfers. Edition, reprint. Publisher, Johns Hopkins Press, Export Citation.
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If one looks more closely, one discovers that rather than emerging out of an intellec- tual vacuum, his hunches rest, in fact, on generalizations of some sort. It includes analogous events in other social fields and accessible to him by way of introspection comparable events within his own person, whether actual or imagined.
After what has been said to persuade the reader that, normally at least, it is no waste armold his time and effort to subject himself to exacting abstract exercises, it still remains to be asked whether in a revolutionary age such as ours the existing general concepts and propositions pertaining to international politics may not, as some have suggested, be rapidly becoming obsolete. At both institutions I enjoyed the further privilege of having able and.
Similarly, and even prior to Woodrow Wilson, the United States has engaged in policies directed toward spreading democracy abroad, especially disclrd promoting the institution of free elections in other countries.
The Atlantic Ocean, for example, which once helped this country avoid entanglements, has today become an obstacle to American protec- tion of Western Europe. BookDB marked it as to-read Sep 13, No wofers will be made here to identify and classify all the diacord goals that nations set for themselves or may set for themselves in the framework of arnopd foreign policy.
The German school of Geopolitik was consciously developed on the model of Marxism and as disvord response and antidote to it. In war, compulsiveness and conformity usually are at a maxi- mum, with the result that all nations feel compelled, for example, to employ the most effective weapons at their disposal. On the other side, any analyst who focuses on individual actors and their varying predispositions will look for an explanation of revisionist behavior primarily in such traits of statesmen as their peculiar aggressive and acquisitive appetites, their rebellious temperaments, or their subjective dis- satisfactions.
The most radical psychopolitical approach is taken by the psychologists, psychiatrists, and sociologists whose views are contained in arnolld two volumes of collaaboration “Tensions Project” of UNESCO, Tensions that Cause Wars ed.
The American decision in the Korean War not to use atomic bombs against tempting military targets north of the Yalu River is a far more promising area for decision-making analysis, because it represents a deviation from the practices generally associated with warfare.
Inimical confrontation on any level involves poten- tial escalation to higher levels, and ultimately to the level of general war. He combines brilliant theoretical reasoning with percep- tive commentary on American foreign policy. In the case of a threat of nuclear devastation some governments might be led to decide–or be forced by public opinion to decide–that surrender rather than defense offers the only chance for the nation to survive in collagoration meaningful sense of the term.
A comprehensive theory does not call for a division of inter- national politics into two compartments, one comprising the realm of the state as the actor in power politics, the other the realm of the human actors, the masses of common men with their psychological traits and their pursuit of human purposes.
Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics – Arnold Wolfers – Google Books
Little attention need be given to traits that, because they are constants or invariants, are incapable of helping to explain any differences in state behavior. Long periods of mere nonbellig- erency, a tenuous form of amity, may go hand in hand with un- abridged latent conflict, as relations between the Soviet Union and the bourgeois national regimes of neutralist states demonstrate. As soon as one seeks to discover the place of goals in the means-end chain of relationships, almost inevitably one is led to probe into the dark labyrinth of human motives, those internal springs of conscious and unconscious actions which Morgenthau calls “the most illusive of psychological data.
Then again, the importance of aim or purpose may be illustrated by a question that has led to much controversy. Moreover, allies sometimes play down their external purpose by not specifying an external foe in their formal treaties in order not to provoke him. Nothing of the kind is intended here. Members of the groups just mentioned are engaged in parallel efforts to reach a common goal by outdoing one another.
The direction of foreign policy may be affected by the official view concerning the decisive determinant or determinants. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Aristotle Tziampiris added it Jul 18, Mr Archie Simpson rated it really liked it Aug 28, No longer do all collaboratin countries shun political ties altogether; most of them, in fact, co-operate within the framework of the United Nations. Subcon- scious or neurotic psychological compulsions over which the actor actually has no collagoration would fall wolrers the category of external determinants.
Some exponents of realist thought have been misunderstood dsicord hold that power or even maximum power represents the only significant goal. As a consequence, there would be no rational cause for conflict or for disturbances of the peace. If this is so, it follows that a basic objective of U. The Actors in International Politics 7 One wonders today, for Instance, whether the bulk of the popula- tion in countries facing the risks of nuclear war will long continue to regard as vital, and thus worthy of defense in war, all the state interests they were once ready to place in this category.
Write a review Rate this item: There is bound to be controversy in instances in which, in the absence of a clear-cut national emergency, the question of priority arises with respect to ocllaboration and milieu goals or to direct and indirect national goals. Lists with This Book. You already recently rated this item. After all, factors external to the actor can become determinants only as they affect the mind, heart, and will of the decision-maker. Although in promoting such values the nation usually will benefit some people more than others and frequently even serve some at the expense of others-as in the case of tariffs, subsidies, or bars to immigration-this inequity does not in itself militate against such promotion.
A Study of Order in World Collaobration. A different situation would arise if, instead of being on fire, the house in question merely were overheated.
One obviously environmentalist theory is that of Karl Marx to which the Soviet leaders profess to adhere even today.
Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics
Still, one may question whether the quest for national security and power, for national independence, aggrandizement, or unifica- tion is any less “human” and therefore necessarily less appealing to the masses than the quest for food, shelter, comfort, and happi- ness.
It would be foolish, however, to go to the other extreme and arnokd to comprehend the struggle for power between the two countries in purely psycholog- ical terms.
A statesman accustomed to analyzing international politics in terms alone of state behavior will treat the United Nations differently from one who believes in the rise of international organizations to a place of independent control over world events similar to that control exerted by states.
Here too, then, the states-as-actors theory and the individuals- as-actors theory must supplement each other. This theory expects a nation to be revisionist if denied the enjoyment of collaborafion of its national core values, provided it has or hopes to obtain enough power to enable it to seek satisfaction of its objectives. But these analogies are misleading. Your request to send this item has been completed.
The qualities which have given Walter Lippmann his eminence in the journalistic analysis of complex problems are wofers to those that account for Dr. Some of the more revolutionary neutralist leaders, as will be discussed in a later chapter, 13 carry collaborarion their fight. Presumably, this implies that decision-makers tend to conform to the demands of this cul- ture, of its values and taboos, whether or not they have internalized, them and made wwolfers part of their own individual predispositions.